By D. Allan Bromley (auth.)
In this impressive travel d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley makes use of the social gathering of the centenary of the yank actual Society to mirror upon the expansion of physics over the last a hundred years, its fragmentation into a variety of subdisciplines, the impression physics has had upon sleek know-how, and the re-emergence of the basic solidarity of the self-discipline in recent times. hundreds and hundreds of historic illustrations accompany the textual content. Bromley conveys a lot of the buzz and beauty that learn in physics generated within the twentieth century and asks what new issues are in shop within the subsequent century. He covers such subject matters as relativity and quantum mechanics, the big apple undertaking, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution caused by means of solid-state electronics, protein folding, the makes use of of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and drugs, plate tectonics, the growth of the universe and the large Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale collage, served as Assistant to the President for technological know-how and know-how coverage 1989-1993 and was once president of the yankee actual Society in 1997. one of many World's best nuclear scientists, he was once founder and director of Yale's nuclear constitution laboratory and has bought a variety of medals and awards, together with the nationwide Medal of Science.
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Brattain (1956), the inventors of the transistor. (Courtesy Bell Telephone Laboratories. ) FIGURE 51 From the left: Stanislaw Ulam, Richard Phillips Feynman (1965), and John von Neumann discussing the future of computing at Los Alamos in 1947. ) FIGURE 52 The ENIAC computer at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946. A chance meeting between John von Neumann and Konrad Zuse of Germany led to von Neumann's establishment of a group at the University of Pennsylvania charged with creating the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).
Superconductivity has long been a technology waiting for application, and the indications are that we are on the threshold of major change in this area. Superconductivity was originally discovered in 1911 in mercury at about 4 K by Kammerlingh Onnes in Leiden (he is shown with his original equipment in Figure 40). Figure 41 plots the transition, or critical temperature, as a function of time beginning in 1911 and shows the sharp break that occurred in 1986 with the introduction of a entirely new class of ceramic materials.
It is the following: In those areas of science where our American activities do not define the frontiers, we must be working close enough to these frontiers so that we can exploit, without delay, discoveries and breakthroughs wherever and whenever made. The Manhattan Project, like the Apollo project, were fundamentally engineering activities, but physicists played a major role in both (particularly the Manhattan Project). Figure 28 shows Lawrence, Fermi, and Rabi discussing the Manhattan Project during its early days at Los Alamos, and Figure 29 shows Niels Bohr-or "Mr.